Stall detection and sensorless homing
This document is relevant to: Duet 2 WiFi / Ethernet, Duet 3 MB6HC and Duet 3 Mini 5+
Firmware versions: RepRapFirmware 1.2 and later (Duet 2 only), RepRapFirmware 3.1.1 and later
The Trinamic TMC2660 drivers (Duet 2 WiFi / Ethernet) TMC5160/2160 drivers (Duet 3 MB6HC) and TMC2209 drivers (Duet 3 Mini 5+) support the stallGuardTM feature. This feature allows the driver to detect motor stalls under some circumstances. Stall detection may be useful for detecting when a motor has skipped steps due to the nozzle hitting an obstruction, and for homing the printer without using endstop switches. RepRapFirmware 1.20 and later provides facilities for configuring and using stall detection.
The TMC2224 drivers on the Duet Maestro do not support stall detection.
Currently (RRF 3.2), stall detection on Duet 3 tool boards (Duet 3 TOOL1LC) and expansion boards (Duet 3 EB3HC) are not yet reported and cannot be used for homing. See Duet 3 firmware configuration limitations.
Table of features
|Board||Driver chip and|
|Duet 2 WiFi |
|TMC2660||16x only||N||Y||Y (SG2)||Y|
|Duet 2 Maestro||TMC2224||Y||Y (SC2)||Y||N||N|
|Duet 3 MB6HC|
Duet 3 EB3HC
|Y||Y (SC2)||Y||Y (SG2)||Y|
|Duet 3 Toolboard||TMC2209||Y||Y (SC2)||Y||Y (SG4)||Y|
|Duet 3 Mini 5+||TMC2209||Y||Y (SC2)||Y||Y (SG4)||Y|
Limitations of stall detection
- The stall detection threshold has to be tuned to the particular stepper motors you use.
- The stepper drivers only update the stall detection state every 1 or 4 full steps, depending on configuration. So the actual position of the stall is uncertain to either +/- half a full step or +/- 2 full steps. This means that when using stall detection to replace endstop switches, the position defined by the stall is much less accurate than with typical endstop switches.
- Stall detection is not reliable at low motor speeds. It would typically give false stall indications at low speeds. To avoid this, the firmware allows you to set minimum speeds (in motor full steps per second) below which stall indications will be ignored. These values may need to be tuned to suit your requirements. It is easier to get reliable stall detection at higher motor speeds.
- Stall detection is not reliable at motor speeds that are too high for the drivers to be able to supply sufficient voltage to maintain motor current. Therefore if you wish to use stall detection to detect skipped steps during printing, you must limit the motor speed to a value that does not require a higher voltage than your power supply provides (maximum 25V). See Choosing Stepper Motors: How to work out the power supply voltage you need.
- The stall detection threshold varies a little with motor temperature, therefore the motor temperatures must not be allowed to vary widely.
- Stall detection works by detecting an increase in the motor load. You may need to reduce acceleration and/or jerk to avoid false stall detection.
- It is very likely that stall detection works better on low current high inductance motors than on high current low inductance motors, although we have not verified this experimentally. Unfortunately, high inductance motors suffer from torque reduction and increased noise at lower speeds than low inductance motors do, so they are not recommended if you want high speed motion.
Minimum recommended speed for stall detection
A rough figure for the minimum speed in full steps per second (M915 H parameter) for which you should be able to get reliable stall detection is given by this formula:
- Hmin = full_steps_per_rev * rated_current * actual_current/(sqrt(2) * pi * rated_holding_torque)
where full_steps_per_rev is 200 or 400 (for 1.8 or 0.9deg motors), currents are in amps, and holding torque is in Nm. From this it can be seen that stall detection at low speeds is easier at lower motor currents. This is one reason why motor current is often reduced during stall-detect homing,
Attempt to keep the speed above 40mm/s.
Background on stall detection
Stall detection is configured using the M915 command, The parameters are:
- Pnnn:nnn:... Drive number(s) to configure
- X,Y,Z,U,V,W,A,B,C Axes to configure (alternative to using the P parameter)
- Snnn Stall detection threshold (-64 to +63, values below -10 not recommended). Higher values reduce the sensitivity; lower values make false stall detection more likely.
- Fn Stall detection filter mode, 1 = filtered (one reading per 4 full steps), 0 = unfiltered (default, 1 reading per full step)
- Hnnn (optional) Minimum motor full steps per second for stall detection to be considered reliable, default 200 (try 400 for 0.9deg motors)
- Rn Action to take on detecting a stall from any of these drivers: 0 = no action (default), 1 = just report it, 2 = pause print, 3 = pause print, execute /sys/rehome/.g, and resume print
Additionally, the TMC2209 stepper driver used in Duet 3 Mini 5+ (and Duet 3 Tool board TOOL1LC once stallGuard is implemented in firmware), features stallGuard 4. This is optimised for operation with stealthChop, while its predecessor stallGuard 2 (TMC5160 and TMC2260) works with spreadCycle. You will need to adjust the speed at which stealthChop changes over to spreadCycle. This is set by M569 V parameter. The default is 2000.
- Send M569 P[driver_number] to see current setting in mm/sec
- Reducing the V parameter increases the speed at which the driver changes from stealthChop to spreadCycle. Make sure that any stall detection happens while the driver is in stealthChop mode.
Stall detection sensitivity (S, F and H parameters)
- Using F1 should reduce the likelihood of getting false stall reports, and it also allows stall detection to work at higher speeds. In the worst case (Duet + Duex 5) the stall status of each driver is checked every 100us. So if you use F0, the time between full steps must be at least 100us to guarantee that the stall is detected. With F1 this is reduced to 25us. However, F1 delays stall detection slightly, so you may wish to use F0 when using stall detection for sensorless homing.
- Set the S parameter to the lowest value at which you do not get false stall reports. Typical values for nema 17 motors are between 1 and 3. False stall reports are most likely during fast travel moves, because the acceleration increases the load on the motor. False stall reports are also more likely when the motors are hot.
- If you have difficulty finding a value for S that detects stalls reliably without also giving rise to false stall reports, try the following:
- Increase the minimum full steps/second for stall detection (H parameter) and use corresponding higher movement speeds
- Reduce acceleration (M201) and/or jerk (M566)
- If you are using stall detection for homing, reduce motor current while homing (see the M913 command)
Action to take on detecting a stall (R parameter)
- Use R0 if you are configuring stall detection for sensorless homing only.
- Use R1 when experimenting with the other parameters, so that you can see what effect they have during a print. If logging is enabled, stalls will be logged as well as reported.
- Use R2 when you have tuned stall detection and you want to pause the print automatically when a stall is detected.
- Use R3 when you have tuned stall detection and you want to re-home and continue the print automatically. You must have a rehome.g file in /sys on the SD card, to instruct the printer on how you'd like to rehome. On a Cartesian or CoreXY printer, typically you would enable stall detection on just the X and Y motors, and re-home just the X and Y axes in rehome.g.
Sensorless homing means not using endstop switches, but instead detecting the stall when the axis reaches the limit of its travel. Configuring sensorless homing requires some trial and error, as there are multiple variables to adjust and tune in. Prior to beginning this, open Gcode dictionary to better understand the commands being used.
Configuring Sensorless Homing
1. Configure for sensorless homing
The first step in sensorless homing configuration is to change your endstop type to "sensorless" in config.g. To change your endstop, you must change the M574 command in config.g. For example, M574 X Y S3 sets the endstops to sensorless homing. This is required. The next thing in this step is to include the following M915 command in config.g. M915 X Y R0 F0. This sets up the last main command needed for sensorless homing. Save your changes. Do not press "yes" for restart. There are other changes that must still be made.
2. Change your homing files' structures
The next step is to change your homing files for X and Y ("homex.g" and "homey.g", and portions of "home all" if X and Y of your ""homeall.g" is configured in such a manner. Sensorless homing requires the use of the M913 command. M913 allows one to control the miliamps (mA) from the maximum (100%) of the M906 command found in config.g. M906 controls the motor currents, while M913 controls the percent of that motor current that is running.
Your homex.g should look something like this:
M913 X70 Y70 ; drop motor current to 70%
M400 G91; relative positioning
G1 H2 Z10 F12000 ; lift Z relative to current position
G1 H1 X-320.5 F10000 ; move quickly to X axis endstop and stop there (first pass)
G1 H2 X5 F12000 ; go back a few mm
G1 H1 X-320.5 F7000 ; move slowly to X axis endstop once more (second pass)
G1 H2 Z-10 F6000 ; lower Z again
G90 ; absolute positioning
M913 X100 Y100 ; return current to 100%
Your "homey.g" should look the same as this, just with Y variables instead of X. For "homeall.g" be sure to include the M400 M913 M400 at the beginning and end of the X and Y portions of "homeall.g."
For another example, M913 X40 Y70 would command 40% and 70% of the total power found in the M906 command in config.g respective of X and Y.
3: Adjust M574 "F" Parameters in all X and Y homing related commands
As seen in step 2, the F parameters of the G1 commands I have for X and Y are quite high. This is because for sensorless homing, your printer must obtain a minimum required speed. Keep F above 3600. Save your changes.
4: Configure M906 in config.g
The next step is configure your motor amps for a baseline in config.g. Try to use as low a current as possible (preferably below 500mA if possible on X and Y). This is done through editing X and Y of M906. Save your changes. For example, on my CR-10 and Ender-3 my X and Y are both set to 400mA in M906. Save your changes.
At this point, restart your Duet board.
5: Try out all of your changed homing files. The homing files that you change should be X and Y or "home all" and X and Y
At this point if you are getting a "crash" you should dial down the F parameter in the G1 commands or lower total motor current (M906) and the percentage drop of current that is used for sensorless homing (M913). Test and retest until satisfied.
Configuring Stall Detection
Once Sensorless Homing is configured well, you can move onto setting up Stall Detection. Stall detection works in a very similar manner to Sensorless Homing. For Stall Detection, you must have sensorless homing engaged. (See above).
Stall Detection guide: This include the necessary changes for config.g, rehome.g, and your slicer of choice
1: Enable your "rehome file" by including M915
M915 is a powerful command. It controls a dynamic system with many parameters. It is imperative to understand it. For a testing baseline, set your rehome.g M915 command to M915 X Y S3 R1 F1. This parameter combination sets up the M915 command to report the stall detections and to do nothing. Save changes.
2: Enable M915 in your slicer
This step requires the same M915 command that is in your rehome.g file be at the END of your STARTING gcode script in your slicer of choice. Place it at the end of your start script gcode commands.
3: Include M915 X Y S3 R0 F0 at the BEGINNING of your ENDING gcode script in slicer of choice
This step is really finishing the work in Step 2. This tells the slicer and gcode file to set the M915 command back to sensorless homing instead of using stall detection. This is important because otherwise your printer will crash into the axes limits without detecting a stall when X and/or Y home at the end of a print.
4: Prepare for test prints
This step requires that you make quite a few test prints. I recommend something like the benchy. Make sure your print speed is set high enough, or stall detection will not work. Try and stay above 40mm/s. Keep first layer slow for adhesion purposes.
5: Test prints for stall detection sensitivity
This is where it gets a little difficult. Stall detection can be a little tricky to calibrate.
This is not a one and done procedure, as each printer is a little different. There are five different variables to concerned about at this point: 1) belt tightness/slack; 2)motor current(M906); 3) acceleration(M201); 4) Max speed change(M566); and 5) M915.
A baseline range for these commands (all found in your config.g) can be found below.:
M906 X300-500 Y300-500M
M201 X300-500 Y300-500
M566 X300-800 Y300-800
These commands may also be changed from the terminal, which I highly recommend you do during your test prints. I have found my best results with stall detection with the above ranges.
Step 4 starts by making sure your M915 command in your rehome.g and slicer is M915 X Y S3 R1 F1. Start off by making sure the above listed commands are at the highend of the range. Once your print is going and stall detection is flashing in the console, start lowering each variable one at a time by 100. If you reach the bottom of the range and your stall detection is still triggering frequently, you need to lower your sensitivity.
Sensitivity is lowered by adjusted the M915 S parameter. A bigger number means less sensitivity. I recommend jumping from M915 S3 to M915 S7. When changing M915, remember, you must change it in your rehome.g file and your slicer.
NOTE 1: If you are at the bottom of the above range and you are still getting lots of false stall reports in the Duet Web Control's console, you need to decrease the sensitivity. Remember, a larger M915 Sn in your slicer and rehome.g file are required to test the change in sensitivity.
NOTE 2: When checking the console for false stall reports, motors will be listed as numbers, not traditional axis letters. This means Drive 0 is X, Drive 1 is Y, Drive 2 is Z, Drive 3 is E0, Drive 4 is E1.
6: Repeat Step 4 as many times as needed until dialed in
7: Once you are not getting any more false stalls, try and increase the parameters listed in Step 4.
Do not change your belt tension if it is not too tight. Once you have increased these parameters, run the last test print with the same sensitivity settings in M915 Sn. This will help fine tune your stall detection. If you are not getting any false stalls at this point, increase your sensitivity by one unit (remember, that means M915 Sn is smaller) and run a new test print with this new sensitivity. If you get no false stalls, continue decreasing the sensitivity until you trigger false stalls, and begin with Step 4 again.
8: When you are satisfied that you are truly dialed in, you need to attempt a hard stall
A hard stall is when the print carriage or the print bed "crashes" or "jolts," resulting in a the print continuing, just in the wrong place. To mimick a hard stall, use a gloved hand (be super careful to not burn yourself! always safety) to jerk the print bed in another direction. If your print is moving fast enough, and your stall detection settings are dialed in, you will see a stall detection report regarding the axis you mimicked a hard stall on.
If you have no detection of the hard stall, be sure to go back to step 4, and also make sure to increase your print speed at this point. If 40mm/s is too slow for you, jump to 50mm/s.
9: Repeat these steps until you are confident with your results
Once you are satisfied, there is one more change to make. You must now change the Rn parameter of M915. M915 R1 must be changed to R2 or R3. M915 Sn R2 will pause the print and wait for you to press resume. M915 R3 will pause your print, rehome, and then resume. This must be changed in rehome.g and in your beginning slicer gcode script.
10: Enjoy your newly dialed in stall detection!
Using extruder stall detection during filament loading
In firmware 1.20 and later you can use extruder motor stall detection to feed filament into the hot end until resistance is encountered. Here's how.
1: Find a motor current that causes the motor to skip steps (not grind the filament).
If you try to push filament too fast through the hot end, or when the hot end is cold. Your normal extruder motor current may already be suitable, but you may want to use a lower one.
2: Using that motor current, find a stall detection threshold
Find the speed that causes motor stall to be reported when you extrude fast and resistance is encountered, but that is not triggered during normal acceleration at the start of a filament feeding move.
It may be helpful to use M122 to look at the SG min or SG max value when you send a large extrusion move and resistance is not encountered, and when resistance is encountered and the motor skips steps. The lower the reported SG value, the higher the load; and vice versa. The relationship between the SG value and the M913 S parameter depends on the driver chip:
- For TMC2660, TMC5160 and TMS2160 drivers, the M915 S parameter (range -64..+63) is added to the internally-calculated SG value to give the reported SG value. A stall is reported when SG falls to zero.
- For TMC2209 drivers, the reported internally-calculated SG value is reported directly. The M915 S parameter (range -128..+127) is subtracted from 128 to put it in the range 0..255. A stall is reported when the SG value falls below this value.
3: Configure stall detection on your extruder motor
Use M915 and the stall detection threshold you found.
4: Create a "Load filament" macro file that does the following:
- Preheat the hot end, if desired (or send M302 P1 if you intend to use the macro when the hot end is cold)
- Use M913 Ennn to reduce the motor current, if necessary (see #1 above)
- Use M83 to select relative extruder motion, in case the macro is called when absolute extrusion is in effect
- If on a delta printer, send G91 to select relative movement (bug workaround for firmware 1.21 and earlier, see later)
- In case the motor is already stalled, retract a small amount of filament (e.g. 1mm) to ensure that it is not flagged as stalled.
- Send a G1 H1 Ennn Fnnn command with appropriate E and F parameters. The E parameter should be long enough for the filament to reach the hot end, and the F parameter should be fast enough to activate stall detection (see the H parameter in the M915 command). The H1 parameter means "stop at the endstop" as usual, and for an extruder the endstop is always stall detection.
- Use M913 E100 to restore the extruder motor current to 100%
- If your macro is intended to be used with the hot end hot, do whatever priming you want to do.
Here is an example file:
; Load T0 with PLA G10 P0 S200 R160 ; set temperatures for PLA T0 ; select tool M116 ; wait for temperatures to be reached G1 E-0.3 F300 ; retract a little filament M400 ; wait for move to finish before changing current M915 E0 S3 ; set stall sensitivity M913 E30 ; motor current to 30% M83 ; relative extrusion G1 H1 E800 F6000 ; feed up to 800mm until stall M913 E100 ; restore normal motor current G1 E50 F120 ; extrude 50mm @ 2mm/sec
Known bug in firmware 1.20 and 1.21: if you send a G1 H1 E command on a delta machine and the printer is in absolute XYZ coordinate mode, it will fail with error "G0/G1: attempt to move delta motors to absolute positions". This is fixed in firmware version 2.0 and later. The workaround is to use G91 to set relative motion before doing the G1 H1 E command. Don't forget to use G90 to set it back to absolute afterwards if your macro subsequently does any XYZ movement commands!