You should ask this in the discussion forum. It’s “possible” since it communicates via serial port and will work electrically, but the firmware for the PanelDue is designed to send Gcode commands that are Duet specific. You would have to rewrite the firmware to send Marlin Gcode and interpret the responses.
It’s possible that you pressed the erase button and wiped out the firmware. Try uploading the latest PanelDue firmware and see if that helps. The UI and menus are part of the PanelDue firmware and do not come from the Duet.