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Editing Step 17 —

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Now that the bed has been manually leveled, and your extrusion factor has been calibrated, it's time to test how flat and level the bed really is.

This time print the Leveling Test STL from https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:367099...

Use 0.4 extrusion width and 0.2 first layer height. This will print a series of concentric square lines covering the entire bed. You'll be able to see where the nozzle is too close to the bed or too far from the bed.

In my case, the bed has a dip in the middle. You can see the gaps between the lines in the center squares, and the joined lines towards the edges of the bed. Adjusting the leveling screws will not be able to fix this issue.

Some skew can be corrected by adjusting the leveling screws, but a concave or convex shape can only be corrected with Mesh Bed Compensation, and will require a Z probe.

If a Z probe is not an option, you can work around this by using baby stepping during the first layer, or by increasing the first layer flow rate to extrude a thicker line to fill the gap in the dipped area, and reduce it again for the outer area.

Another solution is to replace the bed with a flat sheet of glass or aluminum.

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